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Waste collection dispute in Bamako, Mali


Description:

Waste collection in Bamako has long been the responsibility of small neighborhood-based associations and business groups, so-called Groupements d’Intérêts Economiques (GIE), which are coordinated by an association called ‘Collectif des Groupements Intervenant dans l'Assourissement au Mali (COGIAM)’. [1][2] Since the early 1990s, these were integral parts of Bamako’s waste management system and in charge of door-to-door collection and transport to waste transfer depots. About groups usually consist of five to 30 members and work for a fee that was directly paid by households. The groups typically use carts drawn by donkeys and the direct payment system incentivizes them to provide good services. They have been a crucial source of employment, particularly for young adults. Waste workers are also allowed to pick out recyclable waste to complement their salaries. The collected recyclable waste is sold to junk dealers. [3]

Over the years, COGIAM has provided training, protective equipment, and technical and financial support for its members, but also launched awareness-raising campaigns in the broader public. The association wanted to become further involved in municipal waste management, saying that this would ensure employment and a fairer distribution of benefits. It has also sought to coordinate and include informal waste pickers – who are mostly women and (often with children) working at dumpsites and transfer depots – into its activities and proposed the installing of a recycling unit that would provide more secure jobs for waste pickers. It argued that their organizing would allow them to directly sell recyclables to the industry and make them less dependent on intermediaries. [3]

However, in 2015, the Moroccan company Ozone became contracted for street cleaning, waste collection, and disposal services, which was announced as a “big cleanup” of the city that would set an end to the city’s longstanding waste problems. As part of the eight-year contract with the district and national government, Ozone took over a substantial amount of services that used to be managed in a decentralized manner by GIEs and, first, refused to integrate these. In the following, COGIAM started to negotiate a collaboration scheme for about 180 small sanitation groups and in 2017 reached an agreement with communal authorities that allowed them to resume door-to-door collection in certain neighborhoods. Despite that, the GIEs remained entangled in disputes over competencies with the private operator and public authorities. Moreover, also several years after the announced cleanup, the city’s waste problems have just aggravated further. Ozone by 2019 only collected about 30 percent of all waste so that in many neighborhoods waste accumulated and residents often stopped paying their fees and instead again contracted GIEs. [4][5][6][7][8]

Bamako’s waste collection problems are closely linked to the lack of an adequate final disposal site. For over a decade, most of the city’s waste ended up at the Doumanzana dumpsite, situated in Commune I of Bamako, in an abandoned quarry that was never designed to receive waste. After extraction stopped in the 1990s, its large cavity was increasingly filled with waste. In 2001, the site was officially opened as a landfill and, with the help of NGOs, secured and equipped with toilet facilities. [2] Doumanzana used to frequented by hundreds of waste pickers – mostly women and children who lived from what they could find in the trash and collected all kinds of recyclable waste that could be sold, such as bottles, clothes, metals, and electronic waste. A young kid, for example, reported: “We collected iron pieces that we sell to blacksmiths and people who come here to buy and export them” [9]. However, waste has usually already been sorted previously by other waste pickers so that valuable trash was rare, while the community was exposed to smoke, infections, and the risk of an accident. As of 2013, a reported 670 people lived in squatted, self-constructed houses in the area of the Doumanzana dumpsite and, on average, earned about 100 CFA a day (€ 0.30) from picking waste. [1][2][9][10][11]

Locals living in the area and a nearby school from the beginning protested against the dumpsite. With increasing waste volumes, the sanitary conditions worsened and the site regularly caught fire. During rainy season mixed waste soaked in the water, which turned black. Locals, who then formed an association, pointed out that many of them have been living in the area already before the dump was created and since then had been enduring contamination. In 2011, a new massive fire broke out at the site and resulted in violent protests. [9][11] Students in a demonstration wielded banners saying “We die from the gases and smoke from the unbearable garbage” [9] and “No to violence” [9]. Shortly after, authorities announced the stop of waste disposal and the launching of a project to remediate the site [11][12]. However, the designated new landfill in Noumoubougou – which was constructed by the government without prior consultation of the district authorities – has still not become fully operational due to financial problems and delays in construction [5][13][14]. Moreover, locals were opposed to waste disposal at the site and pointed to the deteriorating air quality [15].

Challenged by a political crisis and economic woes, Bamako’s waste problems have however further aggravated over the last few years. As of 2019, many parts of the city remained overfilled with waste that had been accumulating for months and several waste transfer stations had de facto become dumpsites, while constructions in Noumoubougou were still ongoing. Ozone was in a permanent search for new intermediary dumping grounds and had not serviced certain areas for long periods. Waste also started to pile up at central locations such as Marché Dabanani, where it even blocked parts of the street. As of 2019, only 70,000 households and establishments were registered for waste collection, while many others disposed of their waste irregularly in the streets or in drainage canals. [8][13][16]

The situation was especially problematic at two overfilled transfer depots in the Lafiabougou and the Medina Coura neighborhoods, where the health of residents was severely affected. [13][14][16][17] In Lafiabougou (Commune IV) waste accumulated next to a cemetery and formed a 20 meters high garbage hill that locals called ‘Kilimandjaro’. Incapable of bringing the waste elsewhere, Ozone was reported to burn parts of the waste, affecting residents with toxic smoke. They were also affected by diseases stemming from blocked sewers and the draining of waste with rainwater. In 2019, residents blocked the streets and demanded the closure of the site, which had already been announced but remained postponed. [17][18][19] In Medina Coura (Commune II) locals similarly suffered from the bad smell, breathing problems, and high malaria rates. In 2016, street protests took place to demand an end of the poor sanitary conditions but were stopped by the police. Later in the year, a school located near the dumpsite temporally closed because of intolerable stench. In 2018, the school administration announced its second strike and about 100 students held street demonstrations against the overflowing waste transfer depot. They demanded its relocation and stated that several of them had fallen sick from respiratory diseases over the past weeks. [17][20][21] The situation was similar in Bagadadji, where waste was piling up irregularly in the streets in order to be transferred to a waste depot in the Rail-Da commercial area, but severely affecting a local school [22].

Both the workers union of Ozone and COGIAM explained the waste problems with uncontrolled urban growth, the lack of a functioning landfill, insufficient space at transfer depots, and outstanding payments to the operators and employees [6][23]. Ozone in 2019 claimed that it would try the best possible but that the city already owed them 19 billion FCFA (over $US 30 million) and it had difficulties paying its 1,400 employees, who had already gone on strikes [5][6]. The district government claimed that the state government had not provided financial resources that were promised at the beginning of the contract with Ozone [5]. COGIAM in turn again criticized public authorities for having misread the problems and attempted to exclude GIEs, which in the past were blamed for various problems in waste collection without acknowledging their contributions and experience in the sector. The association noted that certain problems, such as the removal and overcrowding of transfer depots and the lack of final disposal sites, made waste collection more time-intensive and hampered the image of collectors towards the population. [23]

In 2020, Ozone made new announcements to fulfill its contract objectives and to “revolutionize" the waste sector in Bamako, at a point at which the company’s employees were two months unpaid and the government was still indebted towards the company. The company announced the subcontracting of new companies and collectives, that waste transfer to Noumoubougou will increase, and to modernize the transfer depots in Lafiabougou, Medina Coura, Darsalam (Commune III), and in the market area, which would eventually put an end to the waste nightmares for locals. [24][25] In the meantime, the precarious conditions of informal waste pickers again became visible during the COVID-19 outbreak, when many of them continued to collect recyclables without any protective equipment or support from sanitary authorities [26]. A women waste picker working at the Rail-Da dumping ground noted: “We are condemned to do this work and ruin our health. Many journalists have passed but nothing has changed” [26].

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Waste collection dispute in Bamako, Mali
Country:Mali
Location of conflict:Bamako
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Waste Management
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites
Pollution related to transport (spills, dust, emissions)
Urban development conflicts
Water treatment and access to sanitation (access to sewage)
Waste privatisation conflicts / waste-picker access to waste
Specific commodities:Domestic municipal waste
Recycled Metals

Project Details and Actors

Project details

Since 2015, the waste collection has been controlled by the Moroccan-controlled waste company Ozone-Mali, which employs about 1,300 people [15]. However, Ozone recently only collected around 30 percent of Bamako's waste (which is estimated to generate about 1,500 tons daily) so that neighborhoods again engaged local Groupements d’Intérêt Economique, which have traditionally collected the city’s waste and, as of 2019, were responsible for 45 percent of the sanitation services. [8][27]

The new landfill in Noumoubougou is located 30 kilometers from Bamako and extends over 50 hectares. It announced to have a leachate treatment system as well as waste segregation and transformation facilities. The costs were about FCFA 6 billion (about $US 10 million) and planning and construction lasted for over 10 years. [8][13]

Level of Investment:10,000,000.00
Type of populationUrban
Start of the conflict:2001
Company names or state enterprises:Ozone-Mali from Morocco - Holds waste management contract with Bamako district
Relevant government actors:Mairie du District de Bamako
Maries des Communes I, II, III, IV, V, VI
Ministere de l'Environnement et de l'Assainissement (MEA)
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Collectif des Groupements Intervenant dans l'Assourissement au Mali (COGIAM)
Coopérative des Récupérateurs de la Commune IV
Global Alliance of Waste Pickers (Globalrec)
Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO)
Coordination des jeunes de Doumanzana
Collectif des riverains de la décharge de Doumanzana
Students of Doulaye Baba school, Doumanzana
Students of Mamadou Diarra 2 school, Médina Coura

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Groups mobilizing:Informal workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Trade unions
Wastepickers, recyclers
Women
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Property damage/arson
Strikes

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Fires, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Potential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Soil erosion
Health ImpactsVisible: Accidents, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases, Other environmental related diseases
Potential: Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Deaths
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights

Outcome

Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Institutional changes
Repression
Strengthening of participation
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
Under negotiation
Application of existing regulations
Development of alternatives:COGIAM wants to increase its competences in the waste management sector and advocated a socially-inclusive model that improves collection and recycling, but also the conditions for waste workers. Their proposed model comes close to cooperative-based recycling schemes, as for example advocated by the Global Alliance of Waste Pickers (Globalrec) and the organization WIEGO (Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing) and already practiced in numerous cities around the globe – from Pune in India to Belo Horizonte in Brazil.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The organizing of neighborhood-based sanitation groups assumingly prevented their complete displacement from the waste management sector, but the conflict over competencies between Ozone, public authorities and COGIAM is ongoing and unlikely to take a turn towards any social or environmental improvements. Waste problems across Bamako are unsolved and have severely affected the health of tens of thousands of residents.

Sources & Materials

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

[1] Bardy, G. (2013): Les Récupérateurs de Doumanzana – Bamako, Mali. 03.04.2013.
https://genarobardy.com/2013/04/03/les-recuperateurs-de-doumanzana-bamako-mali/

[3] Globalrec (n.d.): Bamako – Mali. City Report: Interview with a local Waste Picker.
https://globalrec.org/city/bamako/

[5] Ba, S. (2019): Quatre ans après la signature du contrat Ozone Mali : Aucune partie n’est satisfaite. Bamada, 05.03.2019.
http://bamada.net/quatre-ans-apres-la-signature-du-contrat-ozone-mali-aucune-partie-nest-satisfaite

[6] N’Guessan, P. (2019): Assainissement : l’échec bamakois! Bamako News, 11.10.2019.
http://bamakonews.net/2019/10/assainissement-lechec-bamakois/

[7] Keita, D. (2018): Assainissement de la ville de Bamako: Un collectif de 180 GIE demande de resilier le contrat d’Ozone. Nouvel Horizon Mali, 14.03.2018.
https://nouvelhorizonmali.com/assainissement-de-la-ville-de-bamako-un-collectif-de-180-gie-demande-de-resilier-le-contrat-dozone/

[8] Bah, S. (2018): Sans Tabou: décharge de Noumoubougou, où en sommes-nous ? Bamada, 26.10.2018.
http://bamada.net/sans-tabou-decharge-de-noumoubougou-ou-en-sommes-nous%E2%80%89

[9] Dicko, G. (2011): Doumanzana: La Décharge de la Controverse. Malijet, 15.04.2011.
http://malijet.com/actualte_dans_les_regions_du_mali/31868-doumanzana_la_decharge_de_la_controverse.html

[10] Helsens, T. (2009): Vivre au milieu des ordures. Libération, 31.03.2009.
http://mali.blogs.liberation.fr/2009/03/31/vivre-au-milieu-des-ordures/

[11] Coulibaly, B. (2013): S.O.S pour l’école Doulaye Baba de Doumanzan. abamako.com, 17.04.2013.
http://news.abamako.com/h/17354.html

[12] Bamada.net (2013): Programme d’urgence d’assainissement de Bamako : L’Expectative. 27.11.2013.
http://bamada.net/programme-durgence-dassainissement-de-bamako-lexpectative

[13] Touré, C., Koné, A. (2019): Assainissement: Bamako impuissante face à la sempiternelle question de gestion des ordures. Notre Nation, 19.07.2019.
https://notrenation.com/Assainissement-Bamako-impuissante-face-a-la-sempiternelle-question-de-gestion

[14] Sylla, M. (2019): Insalubrité : Bamako, la cité des ordures! Maliweb, 24.09.2019.
https://www.maliweb.net/environnement/insalubrite-bamako-la-cite-des-ordures-2840133.html

[15] Konaté, D. (2018): Vidéo. Mali: Bamako est sale, à qui la faute? Le Afrique 360, 12.08.2012.
http://afrique.le360.ma/mali/societe/2018/08/12/22358-video-mali-bamako-est-sale-qui-la-faute-22358

[16] Sow, A. (2016): Mali: Marché Dabanani : des ordures inondent la voie publique. Maliactu, 10.08.2016.
https://maliactu.net/mali-marche-dabanani-des-ordures-inondent-la-voie-publique/

[17] Konaté, S. (2019): Mali : Dépôts de transit de Médina-Coura et de Lafiabougou : Les évacuations arrêtées depuis des mois, les déchets refont surface. Maliactu, 05.03.2019.
https://maliactu.net/mali-depots-de-transit-de-medina-coura-et-de-lafiabougou-les-evacuations-arretees-depuis-des-mois-les-dechets-refont-surface/

[18] Ndiaye, I. (2019): Blocage de route a Lafiabougou: Pas de dialogue sans l’évacuation des eaux et déchets. 30 minutes, 20.09.2019.
https://30minutes.net/blocage-de-route-a-lafiabougou-pas-de-dialogue-sans-levacuation-des-eaux-et-dechets/

[19] Bla, E. (2016): Gestion des ordures ménagères par la société Ozone: la mort sur prescription à Lafiabougou. RP Medias, 08.06.2016.
https://www.rpmedias.com/gestion-ordures-menageres-societe-ozone-mort-prescription-a-lafiabougou-2/

[20] France24 (2018): Au cœur de Bamako, la décharge qui pourrit le quotidien des habitants. 29.11.2018.
https://observers.france24.com/fr/20181129-coeur-bamako-median-koura-decharge-depot-transfert-odeur-habitants

[21] Simpara, A. (2018): Mali : Les élèves de Medina Coura manifestent contre le dépôt d’ordures. Maliactu, 21.11.2018.
https://maliactu.net/mali-les-eleves-de-medina-coura-manifestent-contre-le-depot-dordures/

[22] Sangaré, S. (2018): L’école Place de la République à Bamako, entre tas d’ordures et étals de commerce. Benbere, 18.12.2018.
https://benbere.org/terre-dopportunites/ecole-ordures-commerce-bamako-place-republique-tas/

[23] Zeita, Y. (2019): Entre ozone Mali et les GIE : C’est la guerre! abamako.com, 13.03.2019.
http://news.abamako.com/h/208985.html

[24] Doumbia, K. (2020): Ozone-Mali : La révolution en marche. Maliweb, 05.02.2020.
https://www.maliweb.net/environnement/ozone-mali-la-revolution-en-marche-2-2858079.html

[25] Bah, S. (2020): Mali : Assainissement de Bamako: la douteuse opération de charme d’Ozone-Mali. Maliactu, 28.02.2020.
https://maliactu.net/mali-assainissement-de-bamako-la-douteuse-operation-de-charme-dozone-mali/

[26] Sallah, L. (2020): Récupérateurs de déchets : face au Covid-19, «seul Dieu peut nous sauver ». Benbere, 09.05.2020.
https://benbere.org/terre-dopportunites/recuperateurs-dechets-face-covid-19-seul-dieu-peut-nous-sauver/

[27] Keita, Y. (2019): Groupements d’intérêt économique : Quelle place dans l’assainissement de Bamako? Bamada, 13.02.2019.
http://bamada.net/groupements-dinteret-economique-quelle-place-dans-lassainissement-de-bamako

[2] Schiltz, C. (2008): La décharge de Doumanzana à Bamako. 14.04.2008.
http://fullblog.blogspot.com/2008/04/la-dcharge-de-doumanzana-bamako.html

[3] Globalrec (n.d.): Bamako – Mali. City Report: Interview with a local Waste Picker. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://globalrec.org/city/bamako/

[4] Toure, A. (2015): Exclu du Projet d'assainissement Ozone-Mali : Le Cogiam préconise l’implication des plus hautes autorités du pays. Malijet, 18.02.2015. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
http://malijet.com/la_societe_malienne_aujourdhui/123517-exclu-du-projet-d-assainissement-ozone-mali-le-cogiam-pr%C3%A9conise-.html

[5] Ba, S. (2019): Quatre ans après la signature du contrat Ozone Mali : Aucune partie n’est satisfaite. Bamada, 05.03.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
http://bamada.net/quatre-ans-apres-la-signature-du-contrat-ozone-mali-aucune-partie-nest-satisfaite

[6] N’Guessan, P. (2019): Assainissement : l’échec bamakois! Bamako News, 11.10.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
http://bamakonews.net/2019/10/assainissement-lechec-bamakois/

[7] Keita, D. (2018): Assainissement de la ville de Bamako: Un collectif de 180 GIE demande de resilier le contrat d’Ozone. Nouvel Horizon Mali, 14.03.2018. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://nouvelhorizonmali.com/assainissement-de-la-ville-de-bamako-un-collectif-de-180-gie-demande-de-resilier-le-contrat-dozone/

[8] Bah, S. (2018): Sans Tabou: décharge de Noumoubougou, où en sommes-nous ? Bamada, 26.10.2018. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
http://bamada.net/sans-tabou-decharge-de-noumoubougou-ou-en-sommes-nous%E2%80%89

[9] Dicko, G. (2011): Doumanzana: La Décharge de la Controverse. Malijet, 15.04.2011. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
http://malijet.com/actualte_dans_les_regions_du_mali/31868-doumanzana_la_decharge_de_la_controverse.html

[10] Helsens, T. (2009): Vivre au milieu des ordures. Libération, 31.03.2009. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
http://mali.blogs.liberation.fr/2009/03/31/vivre-au-milieu-des-ordures/

[11] Coulibaly, B. (2013): S.O.S pour l’école Doulaye Baba de Doumanzan. abamako.com, 17.04.2013. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
http://news.abamako.com/h/17354.html

[12] Bamada.net (2013): Programme d’urgence d’assainissement de Bamako : L’Expectative. 27.11.2013. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
http://bamada.net/programme-durgence-dassainissement-de-bamako-lexpectative

[13] Touré, C., Koné, A. (2019): Assainissement: Bamako impuissante face à la sempiternelle question de gestion des ordures. Notre Nation, 19.07.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://notrenation.com/Assainissement-Bamako-impuissante-face-a-la-sempiternelle-question-de-gestion

[14] Sylla, M. (2019): Insalubrité : Bamako, la cité des ordures! Maliweb, 24.09.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://www.maliweb.net/environnement/insalubrite-bamako-la-cite-des-ordures-2840133.html

[15] Konaté, D. (2018): Vidéo. Mali: Bamako est sale, à qui la faute? Le Afrique 360, 12.08.2012. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
http://afrique.le360.ma/mali/societe/2018/08/12/22358-video-mali-bamako-est-sale-qui-la-faute-22358

[16] Sow, A. (2016): Mali: Marché Dabanani : des ordures inondent la voie publique. Maliactu, 10.08.2016. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://maliactu.net/mali-marche-dabanani-des-ordures-inondent-la-voie-publique/

[18] Ndiaye, I. (2019): Blocage de route a Lafiabougou: Pas de dialogue sans l’évacuation des eaux et déchets. 30 minutes, 20.09.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://30minutes.net/blocage-de-route-a-lafiabougou-pas-de-dialogue-sans-levacuation-des-eaux-et-dechets/

[19] Bla, E. (2016): Gestion des ordures ménagères par la société Ozone: la mort sur prescription à Lafiabougou. RP Medias, 08.06.2016. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://www.rpmedias.com/gestion-ordures-menageres-societe-ozone-mort-prescription-a-lafiabougou-2/

[20] France24 (2018): Au cœur de Bamako, la décharge qui pourrit le quotidien des habitants. 29.11.2018. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://observers.france24.com/fr/20181129-coeur-bamako-median-koura-decharge-depot-transfert-odeur-habitants

[21] Simpara, A. (2018): Mali : Les élèves de Medina Coura manifestent contre le dépôt d’ordures. Maliactu, 21.11.2018. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://maliactu.net/mali-les-eleves-de-medina-coura-manifestent-contre-le-depot-dordures/

[22] Sangaré, S. (2018): L’école Place de la République à Bamako, entre tas d’ordures et étals de commerce. Benbere, 18.12.2018. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://benbere.org/terre-dopportunites/ecole-ordures-commerce-bamako-place-republique-tas/

[23] Zeita, Y. (2019): Entre ozone Mali et les GIE : C’est la guerre! abamako.com, 13.03.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
http://news.abamako.com/h/208985.html

[24] Doumbia, K. (2020): Ozone-Mali : La révolution en marche. Maliweb, 05.02.2020. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://www.maliweb.net/environnement/ozone-mali-la-revolution-en-marche-2-2858079.html

[25] Bah, S. (2020): Mali : Assainissement de Bamako: la douteuse opération de charme d’Ozone-Mali. Maliactu, 28.02.2020. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://maliactu.net/mali-assainissement-de-bamako-la-douteuse-operation-de-charme-dozone-mali/

[26] Sallah, L. (2020): Récupérateurs de déchets : face au Covid-19, «seul Dieu peut nous sauver ». Benbere, 09.05.2020. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://benbere.org/terre-dopportunites/recuperateurs-dechets-face-covid-19-seul-dieu-peut-nous-sauver/

[2] Schiltz, C. (2008): La décharge de Doumanzana à Bamako. 14.04.2008. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
http://fullblog.blogspot.com/2008/04/la-dcharge-de-doumanzana-bamako.html

[27] Keita, Y. (2019): Groupements d’intérêt économique : Quelle place dans l’assainissement de Bamako? Bamada, 13.02.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
http://bamada.net/groupements-dinteret-economique-quelle-place-dans-lassainissement-de-bamako

[17] Konaté, S. (2019): Mali : Dépôts de transit de Médina-Coura et de Lafiabougou : Les évacuations arrêtées depuis des mois, les déchets refont surface. Maliactu, 05.03.2019. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://maliactu.net/mali-depots-de-transit-de-medina-coura-et-de-lafiabougou-les-evacuations-arretees-depuis-des-mois-les-dechets-refont-surface/

[1] Bardy, G. (2013): Les Récupérateurs de Doumanzana – Bamako, Mali. 03.04.2013. (Online, last accessed: 10.05.2020)
https://genarobardy.com/2013/04/03/les-recuperateurs-de-doumanzana-bamako-mali/

[4] Toure, A. (2015): Exclu du Projet d'assainissement Ozone-Mali : Le Cogiam préconise l’implication des plus hautes autorités du pays. Malijet, 18.02.2015.
http://malijet.com/la_societe_malienne_aujourdhui/123517-exclu-du-projet-d-assainissement-ozone-mali-le-cogiam-pr%C3%A9conise-.html

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Globalrec (2012): Mali recuperateurs
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fhy-FE7IKrE&feature=youtu.be

Globalrec (2012): Mali recuperaterus
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fhy-FE7IKrE&feature=youtu.be

Meta information

Contributor:EnvJustice Project (MS)
Last update21/05/2020

Images

 

Waste pickers at the Doumanzana dumpsite

(Photo credit: Helsens)

Bamako's old Doumanzana dumpsite

(Photo credit: Charel Schiltz)

Community in Route de Same Les protests against waste transport

(Source: abamako.com)

Locals in the Medina Coura neighborhood protest against the garbage mountains

(Photo credit: Soleymane Songaré)

A dumpsite in Rail-Da

(Source: benbere.org)

Garbage is disposed at a transfer depot

(Photo credit: Luc Gnago, Reuters)

COGIAM has been advocating for a socially-inclusive waste management model

(Bamadou Sidibé, Globalrec 2012)

Waste collectors with donkey-drawn carts at a waste transfer depot

(Source: Bamako News)

Informal recyclers in Bamako

(Source: waste.nl)

The garbage mountain at the Lafiabougou transfer depot

(Source: bamada.net)

School students protest in Medina Coura

(Source: maliactu.com)