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Shivdaspura Aero City, India


Description:

In June 2015 it was reported that an international airport would be constructed in the vicinity of Shivdaspura village, 20 kilometres south of Jaipur, the capital city of the state of Rajasthan. An aerotropolis-type development was planned, called Shivdaspura Aero City, with hotels, shopping malls, cinemas, restaurants and a cargo hub.[1] At the end of September 2015 it became evident that mass eviction loomed for the project; an article published by the Times Of India warned that ‘sword of eviction hangs on 20 villages’ in the Shivdaspura area. The Airports Authority of India (AAI) had requested that the state government provide land measuring 6 kilometres by 2.5 kilometres for the airport. Then the state government instructed the Jaipur Development Agency (JDA) to acquire 2,100.8 hectares of land for a greenfield airport (an airport built on undeveloped land). The JDA had already prepared a proposal for land acquisition and had identified land for the airport in 2005-2006, after which land conversion for private housing schemes was banned within this area. Following this, in 2008, a proposal was sent to the AAI. The AAI inspected the area but turned down the airport proposal as it was only 25 kilometres away from the existing Jaipur Airport at Sanganer. The norm is that a new airport cannot be established within a 150 kilometre radius of an existing airport. Upon rejection of the project many public representatives wrote letters urging the JDA to lift the ban on land conversion, to no avail. The airport proposal was discussed again in 2010 and the Urban Development and Housing department (UDH) directed the JDA to examine the project.[2] 2,100 hectare site and a ‘special area’

The JDA finalized the proposal to acquire land for the airport in February 2016, stating that farmers would be compensated according to the provisions of the Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 and that the land acquisition process would commence with preparation of a Social Impact Study (SIA) which was expected to be completed in six months. Within the 2,100.8 hectare area a joint inspection was carried out by AAI and JDA officials of a ‘special area’ requiring land acquisition from eight villages. The full list of 20 affected villages specified the proposed land areas earmarked for acquisition (in hectares): Chandlai 79.26; Shivdaspura 172.25; Bareda 558.25; Gopirampura 229.06; Laxmipura 2.76; Biharipura 23.56; Jajhaarpura 37.30; Yaralipura 101.28; Bada Padampura 133.14; Raypuriya 223.75; Paachunda 0.33; Bhawanipura 14.97; Jailalpura 88.13; Balupura 138.55; Devki Nandanpura 0.47; Jajaalpura 3.44; Nagaalpura 159.37; Dharampura 58.95; Hanumanpura 73.11 ; Chak Shivdaspura 2.37[3]

Protests against land acquisition

In July 2017 the Times of India reported that the fate of many farmers in the 20 villages facing land acquisition for the airport hung in the balance; they faced inconvenience as the state government decided whether to proceed with the project. The ban on land conversion and issuing title deeds meant a stall on development in affected areas.[4] In November 2017, following directions from the state government, the JDA drafted a fresh proposal estimating the compensation to be provided to landowners for land acquisition. A JDA official stated that the 6 kilometre by 2.5 kilometre area would include a “400 hectare area earmarked for developing hotel, lounge etc.”[5] In December 2017 JDA’s proposal to acquire land for the airport from 20 villages was reported at 2,094 hectares for total project site area. Within this area the JDA planned to earmark 1,172 hectares of land for development of the runway for the proposed airport and this land would be acquired from eight villages. In response to direction from the UDH the JDA had sent coordinates identifying the site. Following a recent visit by Minister of State for Civil Aviation, Jayant Sinya, the state government expedited the land acquisition exercise for the airport.[6]

 There was a major protest against land acquisition for Shivdaspura Airport by farmers and residents of the 20 affected villages in January 2018.[7] The following month many farmers with land earmarked for acquisition to make way for the airport threatened to stage a protest in the state assembly. Narendra Sharma, an affected farmer, raised the issue of the ban on land conversion stalling development in the area for several years saying: “If government want to construct the airport, it should expedite the process to provide compensation or the ban should be lifted as it’s affecting the growth of the area.”[8] Information about the Shivdaspura Airport project compiled by Land Conflict Watch informs us that Ashok Mehta, president of the organization opposing the airport, Shivdaspura Greenfield airport hatao samgarah samiti, said acquisition of 2,100 hectares of land in 20 villages for the project would affect 80,000 people and that the area contains 2,000 houses, 30 schools and 200 commercial institutions. The investment in the airport is Rs 1,400 Crore (USD195,769,000).[9] A series of protests by farmers opposing land acquisition for the airport began in March 2018. Affected farmers had started to organize meetings in the villages. One farmer, Abhishek Kumar, said: “For the airport the JDA would acquire land in 21 villages. We have decided to organize meeting every day in each village. The farmers would present the memorandum to chief minister and demand not to develop airport on private land.”[10]

Affected families unable to sell or develop their land

In June 2018 the UDH turned down a proposal by several developers who submitted a memorandum requesting that buildings, houses and plots on land reserved for Shivdaspura Airport be regularized. The request was turned down even though the state government had yet to decide whether to proceed with the airport project. The decision meant that development in the airport-affected area would continue to be stalled. An official stated that the decision against regularizing the land was based upon Section 54(B) of the Jaipur Development Authority Act 1982, which contains a provision that land reserved for a project cannot be regularized, even if the land is not acquired. The state government would require Rs 6,000 Crore (USD839 million) to acquire land for the airport.[11] In January 2019 a change of government raised airport-affected landowners’ hopes for regularization of their land. Affected families appealed to the new Chief Minister of Rajasthan, Ashok Gehlot, to intervene, pointing out that they could neither sell nor develop their land and remained uncompensated by the JDA. Property within the land reserved for the airport had turned into non-performing assets. Affected families’ appeals against the airport had gone unheard under the previous government.[12] In April 2019 the Times of India reported that the state government and JDA may decide to shelve the airport project due to shortage of funds for land acquisition. A land plot owner, Ashok Singh said that stalling of development on the land over several years meant “land holders are left in lurch”.  Another plot owner said the land reserved in Shivdaspura was unsuitable for an airport due to clay soil.[13] In August 2019 farmers affected by the proposed greenfield airport once again demanded that the state government regularize their land. Under the banner of Greenfield airport Hatao Kisan Sangarch Samiti they gathered in Shivdaspura to protest and submitted a memorandum to Chief Minister Ashok Gehlot demanding lifting of the ban on development on the land. A farmer said that reservation of land for the airport in eight villages in 2005-2006 “was completely illegal as there is no provision in the law to reserve land.” Another member of the farmers’ delegation, Prahlad Meena, said that earmarking of land in eight villages as a ‘special area’ in the 2025 master plan had caused huge inconvenience to farmers: “For the past many years, the district lease committee (DLC) rates of the area have not increased, as the land is reserved for the airport. Moreover development is stalled as land holders are left in the lurch. In Lok Sabha, civil aviation minister had replied that no airport was proposed in Shivdaspura. Still, the land was kept reserved.”[14]

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Shivdaspura Aero City, India
Country:India
State or province:Rajasthan
Location of conflict:Jaipur District
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Land acquisition conflicts
Tourism facilities (ski resorts, hotels, marinas)
Urban development conflicts
Other
Ports and airport projects
Specific commodities:Land

Project Details and Actors

Project details

The JDA prepared a proposal for land acquisition and had identified land for an airport in Shivdaspura in 2005-2006. Then in 2008, a proposal was sent to the AAI which turned down the airport proposal as it was only 25 kilometres away from the existing Jaipur Airport. In 2010 the UDH directed the JDA to examine the project.[2] Proposals for an international airport in the Shivdaspura area were reported in June 2015. The project was called Shivdaspura Aero City, with hotels, shopping malls, cinemas, restaurants and a cargo hub.[1] Within the 2,100.8 hectare site, entailing land acquisition from 20 villages, a ‘special area’ has been earmarked requiring land acquisition from eight villages.[3] A JDA official stated that this area, measuring 6 kilometres by 2.5 kilometres, would include a “400 hectare area earmarked for developing hotel, lounge etc.”[5] In April 2019 it was reported that the Rajasthan state government and JDA might shelve the airport project due to shortage of funds for land acquisition.[13]

Type of populationRural
Affected Population:80,000
Start of the conflict:30/09/2015
Relevant government actors:Jaipur Development Authority (JDA)
Urban Development and Housing (UDH) department
District Lease Committee (DLC)
Rajasthan State Government
Airports Authority of India (AAI)
Ministry of Civil Aviation
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Shivdaspura greenfield airport hatao samgarah samiti / Greenfield airport Hatao Kisan Sangarsh Samiti

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Local ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Forms of mobilization:Development of a network/collective action
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Oil spills, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Health ImpactsPotential: Malnutrition, Other environmental related diseases, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Other Health impactsIllnesses caused by pollutants emitted by aircraft
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Violations of human rights, Land dispossession

Outcome

Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Conflict outcome / response:Under negotiation
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Farmers from 20 villages could face eviction for the Shivdaspura airport project and they have been prevented from developing their land since it was reserved for the project in 2005-2006. Affected landholders' appeals have gone unheard by the authorities and 2,100.8 hectares of land remains reserved for the airport even though it has not been approved by the Airports Authority on India and it is uncertain whether it will actually be constructed.

Sources & Materials

Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Jaipur Development Authority Act 1982, section 54(B): Allotment, regularization etc. of certain lands
http://jda.urban.rajasthan.gov.in/content/dam/raj/udh/development-authority/jda-jaipur/pdf/Others/JDAAct1982.pdf

THE RIGHT TO FAIR COMPENSATION AND TRANSPARENCY IN LAND ACQUISITION, REHABILITATION AND RESETTLEMENT ACT, 2013
http://legislative.gov.in/sites/default/files/A2013-30.pdf

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

[1] जयपुर में विकसित होगी एयरो सिटी, बनेगा इंटरनेशनल एयरपोर्ट, moneybhaskar.com, 22 June 2015
https://money.bhaskar.com/news/MON-STA-RAJ-aero-city-to-be-establish-near-jaipur-in-rajasthan-5029475-NOR.html

[9] Farmers up in arms against land acquisition for new airport project, Times of India, 20 March 2018
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/farmers-up-in-arms-against-land-acquisition-for-new-airport-project/articleshow/63372411.cms

[2] Sword of eviction hangs on 20 villages, Times of India, 30 September 2015
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/Sword-of-eviction-hangs-on-20-villages/articleshow/49163431.cms

[10] Shivdaspura Greenfield airport affected people appeal to CM Ashok Gehlot, DNA India, 21 January 2019
https://www.dnaindia.com/jaipur/report-shivdaspura-greenfield-airport-affected-people-appeal-to-cm-ashok-gehlot-2710285

[3] Jaipur Development Authority all set to acquire land for second airport, Times of India, 6 February 2016
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/Jaipur-Development-Authority-all-set-to-acquire-land-for-second-airport/articleshow/50872739.cms

[11] No government nod for houses on land for new airport, Times of India, 9 June 2018
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/no-govt-nod-for-houses-on-land-for-new-airport/articleshow/64524622.cms

[4] Fate of farmers in Shivdaspura area hangs in balance, Times of India, 24 July 2017
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/fate-of-farmers-in-shivdaspura-area-hangs-in-balance/articleshow/59736997.cms

[11] Fund crunch may drive JDA to shelve new airport project, Times of India, 7 April 2019
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/fund-crunch-may-drive-jda-to-shelve-new-airport-project/articleshow/68758293.cms

[5] Government needs Rs 6,000 crore to acquire land for new airport, Times of India, 3 November 2017
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/govt-needs-rs-6kcr-to-acquire-land-for-new-airport/articleshow/61473268.cms

[12] Farmers body protests against new airport at Shivdaspura, Times of India, 13 August 2019
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/farmer-body-protests-against-new-airport-at-shivdaspura/articleshow/70650868.cms

[6] JDA plans 1,171 hectares for runway in new project, Times of India, 10 December 2017
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/jda-plans-1171-hectares-for-runway-in-new-project/articleshow/62003582.cms

[7] Farmers and residents waned govt on greenfield airport project, patrika.com, 3 January 2018
https://www.patrika.com/jaipur-news/farmers-and-residents-warned-govt-on-greenfield-airport-project-2179532/

[8] No government nod for houses on land for new airport, Times of India, 9 June 2018
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/no-govt-nod-for-houses-on-land-for-new-airport/articleshow/64524622.cms

[13] Fund crunch may drive JDA to shelve new airport project, Times of India, 7 April 2019
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/fund-crunch-may-drive-jda-to-shelve-new-airport-project/articleshow/68758293.cms

[14] Farmers body protests against new airport at Shivdaspura, Times of India, 13 August 2019
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/farmer-body-protests-against-new-airport-at-shivdaspura/articleshow/70650868.cms

[9] Greenfield Airport Project, Shivdaspura, Land Conflict Watch, 1 February 2018
https://www.landconflictwatch.org/research/greenfield-airport-project-0

[8] Tough time for JDA to acquire land for projects, Times of India, 11 February 2018
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/tough-time-for-jda-to-acquire-land-for-projects/articleshow/62867551.cms

[10] Farmers up in arms against land acquisition for new airport project, Times of India, 20 March 2018
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/farmers-up-in-arms-against-land-acquisition-for-new-airport-project/articleshow/63372411.cms

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Protest against Shivdaspura Airport project, Mahesh Seera, 12th August 2019
https://www.facebook.com/100014799783168/videos/673431896493464/

Meta information

Contributor:Rose Bridger, Stay Grounded, email: [email protected]
Last update23/08/2019

Images

 

Farmers protest against new airport in Shivdaspura

Affected farmers from 8 villages protested against the proposed greenfield airport at Shivdaspura in August 2019. Source: Times of India, 13th August 2019 https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/farmer-body-protests-against-new-airport-at-shivdaspura/articleshow/70650868.cms

Protest against Shivdaspura airport project

There was a major protest, by farmers and residents of 20 affected villages, against Shivdsapura greenfield airport in January 2018. Source: Patrika, 3 January 2018 https://www.patrika.com/jaipur-news/farmers-and-residents-warned-govt-on-greenfield-airport-project-2179532/